Bontoc Municipal Profile



  1. Bontoc as a Mission Station of the Religious

Besides political administrative underpinning, the lasting legacies of the Spanish and American regimes in Bontoc are religion and education. Until now, the municipality hosts the seats of Roman Catholic and Episcopalian (Anglican) bishops. Records from the Bontoc Roman Catholic Church reveal that the first baptism held in Bontoc was administered by a certain Father Jose Iglesia of the Augustinian Order on November 28, 1893. The Spanish missionaries however abandoned the Bontoc Mission sometime in 1898. After a lull for almost a decade, a group of Belgian missionaries led by Father Constancio Jurgens and John Sepulchre arrived in Bontoc in time to celebrate a midnight mass on December 24, 1907 (Benito Miranda, 19__).


Under the Episcopal Church of the United States of America (ECUSA), the Philippines as a Missionary District were created on October 11, 1901 under Bishop Charles Henry Brent. However, it was only in February 1903 that a survey trip was made to the Cordillera. In August of the same year, Rev. Clapp was sent to Bontoc to open the mission of the Holy Comforter.


Both churches established their educational system that exists today: the Saint Vincent’s School of the CICM, the All Saints Mission School of the Diocese of Northern Philippines, Philippine and Episcopal Church.


  1. Political Administrative History


The Commandancia of Bontoc

The town of Bontoc was not known during the Spanish regime until 1887 when it was established as the seat of the district. Bontoc was made headquarters of Comandancia Politico-Militar de Bontoc, subordinate to Politico Military District of Lepanto in January 1857. A Royal Order issued on June 24, 1858 created the District of Bontoc as an independent military command. It was one of to ten politico-military commandancias established in the Cordillera between 1847 and 1891 by the Spanish colonial government to gain political control over the independent tribes of the Igorots. Since it’s established in 1857 up to the withdrawal of the last commandant Commandante Xandaro in 1898, the Bontoc-based military command led or participated in at least ten punitive expeditions against the Spanish government.


Despite its superiority in arms, the Spanish garrison of Bontoc was the target of attacks launched by defiant Igorots wanting to maintain their independence. Governor General Primo de Rivera decreed an ultimatum to all independent tribes to submit to Spain before April 1, 1891, which resulted in an uprising staged by villagers of Bontoc in May 9 of the same year. Armed only with bolos, spears, head axes, and shields, the Bontoc warriors beset the garrison, killed nine Spanish soldiers, and wounded many more. After setting fire to the buildings, the warriors fled to the mountains with enemy heads and other spoils to celebrate their victory despite the loss of some 70 lives among their own men. A bigger uprising in December 1884 in protest of new tribute regulations was aborted by the commandancia using paid spies among the Bontocs.


In August 13, 1898, the Americans defeated the Spaniards in Manila. The Bontoc garrison, which became a refuge for retreating Spanish soldiers and missionaries, was finally taken over by Bontoc warriors on September 3, 1898, aided by the revolutionary forces of General Emilio Aguinaldo who himself was seeking refuge in the Cordillera from the American troops. However, that victory was short-lived due to the immediate setup of the U.S. military government under General Arthur MacArthur as governor general and occupied the archipelago including the Cordillera driving Aguinaldo to Ifugao and finally to Palanan, Isabela where he was captured on March 23, 1901.


Bontoc was part of the Lepanto-Bontoc administrative province in 1903, which was later divided in 1918 into three sub provinces of Bontoc, Lepanto and Amburayan. Each sub province was headed by a governor. During the U.S. occupation, the Philippine Commission passed Act No. 1870 in 1920, which organized the Mountain Province. The new province consisted of seven former commandancias as sub provinces, with Bontoc as its capital.


During World War II, the Japanese occupied Bontoc on June 1942 until the end of the war in September 1945. During the occupation, Dr. Hilary Clapp, one of the first educated Igorots was appointed governor.


  1. Bontoc as a Regular Municipality


Mountain Province was originally composed of the five (5) sub provinces of Bontoc, Ifugao, Benguet, Apayao and Kalinga. As the capital town of the province, Bontoc achieved classification status as a first class municipality before it was subdivided into five (5) separate autonomous provinces establishing its provincial headquarters at Bontoc.


Republic Act No. 4695

As early as 1925, Honorable Henry A. Kamora representing the sub province of Benguet filed a Bill proposing for the sub division of Mountain Province into two (2) separate provinces. This however did not push through. A similar House Bill was reintroduced in 1932 and was presented in the 1935 Constitutional Convention but like the Kamora Bill, it did not gain enough political support.


Thirty years later in 1962, Honorables Alfredo G. Lamen and Luis Hora authored House Bill No. 460 proposing for the subdivision of the province into five separate provinces. The same bill suffered the same fate with its predecessors.


Congressmen elect Honorables Juan Duyan and Luis Hora representing the first district of Kalinga-Apayao and part of Bontoc, and the third district of the sub province of Ifugao and part of Bontoc respectively, authored House Bill No. 1526 proposing again for the division of the province into five (5) separate provinces. To ensure passage of the Bill, endorsements and resolutions from the people, political leaders and civil leaders were forwarded to Congress requesting support for the approval of the bill. Deliberated by Congress on March 25, 1966, House Bill No. 1526 became a law as Republic Act No. 4695 titled, an act creating the provinces of Benguet, Mountain Province, Ifugao and Kalinga Apayao on June 18, 1966.


Specifically, Section 3 of the Republic Act states:

“Mountain Province shall comprise the sub province of Bontoc and the municipalities of Barlig, Bauko, Natonin, Sabangan, Sadanga, Sagada, Tadian and Paracelis.”


Section 7 further states: “Except herein after provided, all provisions of law now or hereafter applicable to regular provinces shall apply to the provinces of Benguet, Mountain Province, Ifugao and Kalinga-Apayao.”


Executive Order No. 42


From the Office of the President, this order created the municipalities of Bontoc, Besao, Bauko, Sabangan, Natonin, Sadanga, and Tadian (Official Gazette.   July 8, 1963.  P. 4185).


Mountain Province retained its name with Bontoc as its capital town but lost the jurisdiction over the vast territory in the Cordillera. The division resulted in the drastic regression of Bontoc into fifth class town.




Geographic Location


Bontoc is the capital town of Mountain Province with a total land area of approximately 39,610 hectares. It is located at the heart of the province with mean coordinates of 17o 05’ latitude and 120o 56’ longitude. The Municipality is bounded on the north by municipality of Tubo, Abra: on the northeast by Municipality of Sadanga, on the east by municipality of Barlig: on the south by municipality of Banaue and Hungduan, Ifugao; on the southwest by Sabangan, Mountain Province and on the west by Sagada, and Besao, Mountain Province, and is 146 kilometers away from Baguio City (See Location Map).




The highest elevation in the municipality is found in Mount Kalawitan, barangay Bayyo with an elevation of 2, 714 meters above sea level (ASL) located at the southern part of the municipality while the lowest is in barangay Tocucan with an elevation of 800 meters (ASL) where all major rivers and creeks drain eastward. (See Elevation Map).




The slope gradients in the municipality were interpreted from topographic maps based on horizontal distances among contour lines. These are as follows:


8%                          nearly level to undulating

8-10%                    undulating to moderately sloping

18-30%                 moderately sloping to strongly sloping

Above 30%         steep to very steep


The majority of the total land mass of Bontoc ranges from 18% to 30% which comprises 88.89% of the total land area. Moderately sloping to strongly sloping areas is found in almost all the barangays especially in settlement areas. The concentration of severe slopes is found in barangays Mainit, Bayyo, Gonogon, Alab Oriente, Can-eo and Tocucan. See table 2.1


Table 2.1 Elevation per Barangay, Bontoc, Mountain Province. 2002




Physiographic Grouping (ha.)
Below 1000 Above 1000 Total
1. Alab Oriente 318 129 447
2. Alab Proper 102 211 313
3. Balili 246 359 605
4. Bayyo   5,787 5,787
5. Bontoc Ili 385 2,084 2,469
6. Caluttit 19 35 54
7. Can-eo 197 2,294 2,491
8. Dalican   955 955
9. Gonogon 102 666 768
10. Guina-ang 98 1,762 1,860
11. Mainit   3,480 3,930
12. Maligcong   1,500 1,500
13. Poblacion 61   61
14. Samoki 702 875 1,577
15. Talubin 222 5,466 5,688
16. Tocucan 2,940 8,165 11,105
Average/Total 5,391 33,769 39,610

Source: Plan metric measurement of Bontoc Elevation Map; NAMRA 1996.




Rock Formation

The surface area of Bontoc is underlain by two rock formations: sedimentary and Igneous.


Land Forms

There are alluvium plain found in central Bontoc and volcanic mountains found in all barangays except Poblacion and Caluttit.



Soil Classification by Physiography

The soils in Bontoc are of sandstone, shale and karstic limestone origin. The depths and horizon differ according to elevation and slope. This means that the soil can be classified by river terraces, minor stream valley, sedimentary hills and mountains, metasediment and metavolcanic mountain, limestone and volcanic mountain.


High Lime Stone Mountains

This soil grouping is manifested in terraced side slopes which are distributed in 10 barangays with the high distribution rate found in Mainit with 2,311 hectares. Tocucan has 451 hectares of this type of soil and Maligcong with 421 hectares. Total land area of terraced side slopes under this classification is 3,819 hectares.


High Sedimentary Mountains

The soil grouping totals 7,900 hectares with1, 307 hectares located in 7 barangays with the biggest concentration found in Guina-ang with 623 hectares and Bayyo with 411 hectares.

It is also concentrated in moderately steep slopes above 1000 meters sea level in the barangays of Bayyo (2,778 has), Can-eo (1,615 has), and Bontoc Ili (660 has). This soil type is also located in the steep slopes of Guina-ang (1,161 has), Maligcong (121 has) and the rest distributed in Mainit, Poblacion, Samoki and Tocucan.



High Volcanic Mountains

This is found in terraced side slopes and steep slopes with the greatest concentration found in Mainit (5,256 has), Talubin (1,312 has) and Maligcong (223 has).


Soil Series

There are three types of soils found in Bontoc, These are the Sabangan Clay Loam, Natonin Silt, and several undifferentiated mountain soils

Sabangan Clay Loam is found in western and southern barangays of Gonogon, Balili, Alab Oriente, Alab Proper, Dalican, Bontoc Ili, Talubin and Bayyo, including the river valley of Chico along Poblacion, Caluttit and Tocucan.

Natonin Silt is prominent in the eastern barangays of Tocucan, Can-eo, Talubin, and Bayyo and including portions of Bontoc Ili. Undifferentiated mountain soils are left unexplored in barangays Maligcong, Mainit, Dalican, Bontoc Ili, Tocucan, Can-eo, Talubin and Bayyo.



Land Classification

The legal status of land resources in Bontoc consists of Alienable and Disposable lands (A & D) and Classified and Unclassified Forest Lands.


  1. Alienable and Disposable Lands (A & D) – Bontoc has a total of 2,016 hectares of (A & D) representing five percent of the municipal territory. This is classified an agricultural, residential, commercial, industrial, educational, charitable and reservations for town sites. This is found in barangay Gonogon, Alab Oriente, Samoki, Poblacion, Calutit and Tocucan.
  2. Forest Lands – it covers the most extensive area estimated at 25,064.17 hectares representing 63.28 % of the total land area. These are forest, grass and brush lands.


Existing General Land Use

Built-up Areas

Built up areas or the alienable and disposable lands cover areas intended for settlements, agriculture, water bodies, and infrastructures. The total built up area of Bontoc is 939.03 hectares. It also includes all the major road infrastructures in the municipality.


Agricultural Areas

It covers an area of 13,426.38 hectares for corn, highland vegetables, lowland fruit trees, bananas, rice and inland fishing areas.


Forest Areas

The municipality has a total forest area of 25,064.17 hectares representing 63.28% of the total municipal land area.


Water Bodies

It covers a total of 180 hectares which includes lakes and wetlands, fishing grounds including major rivers and creeks. This land use category accounts of .45 percent of the of the total land area of the municipality. See Table 2.3


Table 2.3 Existing General Land Use. Bontoc, Mountain Province

Existing Categories Land Area (Has) % to Total
1. Built up Area/Infrastructure 939.03 2.37
2. Agricultural Area 13,426.38 33.90
3. Forest Area 25,064.17 63.28
4. Water Bodies 180 .45
Total 39,610 100

Source: SAFDZ, Department of Agriculture, Bontoc, Mountain Province.


Urban Land Use Pattern

Among the 16 barangays of Bontoc, barangay Poblacion is considered an urban area considering its population, strategic location, and high development potentials, i.e., co0mmercial space, institutional and residential areas. The barangays of Bontoc Ili, Caluttit and Samoki are adjacent to the Poblacion. These also comprise congested settlements which are considered urbanized.


Built Up Areas

This includes land uses for residential purposes of 22.12 hectares (36.26%); commercial lands 6 hectares (9.83%); and institutional lands 2 hectares (3.27%) for a total of 30.12 hectares accounting for 49.37 percent of the total urban land area. This land use classification also includes the road infrastructures existing within the urban area. The public market is the central business district in the municipality, which has been booming all over Poblacion, creating a pseudo-commercial use within established residential areas.


Industrial Area

This land category covers the areas wherein industries such as manufacturing and processing establishments are located either wholly or partially devoted for industrial purposes. However, in the case of Bontoc, Mountain Province, there are no assigned specific sites/areas particular to this land category. Industries under this classification are spread out in residential as well as other land classifications.





Bontoc is rich in gold especially in barangay Mainit, Alab Proper and Maligcong where gold panning is existing. There were previous studies conducted by mining firms in barangay Mainit but these findings have not been formally released for public consumption. However, there is prevailing practice of gold panning in barangay Mainit.

The quarry source for sand and gravel is from the Chico River notably within the Samoki and Poblacion areas. Other barangays extract sand and gravel from the tributaries of the Chico River, the Bayyo-Agcoyo River, and the Amlosong River for the upper southern barangays. The Bayyo side of Mount Polis bordering the municipality of Banaue is also a potential source of mountain sand and gravel.



Bontoc has no coastal resources since it is not found in the coastal area.



Potable Water Resources

There are six (6) identified water sources servicing the barangays of Talubin, Bontoc Ili, Poblacion, Caluttit and Samoki with a total of about 732 connections for both private and commercial uses. The other barngays source their water from available springs. The current water supply of the municipality is not sufficient.



The climate in the municipality is classified as Type I where that are pronounced dry and wet seasons – dry between the later part of October and the month of April, and wet during the rest of the year. Warmer months are experienced on March and April while cooler temperature experienced from November top February.


Bontoc is annually visited by typhoons with the highest rainfall gauged during the months of July and September. The Department of Agriculture recorded the average annual rainfall in Bontoc at 180 mm. average temperature reaches 19.4 degree Celsius with temperature at its highest in the months of May and June.


Atmospheric Temperature

Bontoc has an average of 19.4 degree Celsius. The temperature is at its highest in the months of April and June. January to February usually is the coldest months where the temperature reaches less than 10 degree Celsius.


Relative Humidity

Bontoc has an average humidity reaches 87.49%.



Bontoc has an average rainfall of 326.76 mm. the highest rainfall is experienced in the months of July to October and the lowest rainfall is within the month of January.



Table 2.5 Climatological Data. 1988 to 2000. Bontoc, Mountain Province

Months Annual Rainfall






January 9.4 18.1 84.74
February 24.9 18.6 84.81
March 73.5 19.8 85.61
April 258.3 19.8 84.44
May 287.6 20.5 88.38
June 426.3 20.4 89.07
July 846.0 19.8 91.11
August 604.5 19.5 91.79
September 681.2 19.5 89.57
October 595.6 19.6 89.16
November 92.8 19.0 86.28
December 21.0 18.2 83.90
Total (average) 326.758 19.4 87.40

Source: PAG-ASA, Baguio City. July 2002


Natural Hazard/Constrains

There are two potential nature hazards or physical constrains to the development of Bontoc: Erosion and Fault lines.



All the 16 barangays except Poblacion are prone to erosions especially in those areas of more than 30% slope.


Fault lines

There are several major faults that could affect the municipality, namely: Philippine fault – active fault where an earthquake with intensity 7.8 on the Richter scale occurred; the Didig and Baguio faults are potential earthquake generators being attached as north lateral splices of the Philippines fault. Minor landscape deformation such as joints, fractures, shear and gorge zones are manifestations of past fault activities and intrusions. These major faults (lineaments) found by the Phivolcs in the municipality are presented in the Development Constrains Map. Fault 1 passes through the western flank while Fault 2 on the eastern flank.


Table 2.6 Major Fault lines of Botnoc. 2002.

Name of Fault line Number of


Traversed Barangays
Fault 1 1 Gonogon, Balili, Bontoc, Guina-ang and Mainit
Fault 2 1 Bayyo, Talubin, Can-eo and Tucocan

Source: Phivolcs, Quezon City. 1999





Approximately 99% of the total population of Bontoc is a Filipino. People of Bontoc speak Bontoc dialect, Kankanai and Ilocano. Other dialects spoken by he immigrants are Pangalatot, Cuyonan, and other speaking their own dialect. There are 98% that speaks Bontoc dialect.


The typical family of Bontoc has an average family member of five (5) based from 2007 CBMS survey.


About 62% of the townspeople belong to the Roman Catholic Church, 43% belong to the Philippine Episcopal Church and 5% belongs to the other religious denomination like Iglesia ni Cristo, Baptist and other religious church.


In terms of literacy, about 89.59% of the population 10 years and above are literate based on 2007 CBMS survey.



In year 2005, Bontoc have a total population of 22,835. The municipal average annual growth rate is 1.21% from year 2000 to 2005.


Table 3.1 Population Size and Average Annual Growth Rate

                   Bontoc, Mountain Province (2000-2005)

Censual Year Total Population Average Annual

Growth Rate

1990 17,716  
1995 21,192 3.58%
2000 21,493 0.28%
2005 22,835 1.21%




For the first five years from 2000 to 2005 the municipal average annual growth rate of 0.94%. During the same period, 9 barangays registered higher than the municipal average annual growth rate namely Alab Proper, Balili, bontoc Ili, Calutti, Samoki, Talubin ad Tocucan, Barangay Balili registered the highest annual growth rate with 3.94% and Barangay Dalican registered the lowest with -1.47%.


Table 3.2 16 Barangays Average Annual Growth Rate

                    Bontoc, Mountain Province

Name of Barangay Average Annual Growth

Rate (2000-2005)

  1. BAYYO
  1. CANEO
  1. DALIC
  TOTAL                        0.94%


In 2002 to 2007, there are 2,975 or 13.85% of the total population who migrated in Bontoc coming from other municipalities and provinces.



As reported by MHO 2008, Bontoc has a total population of 23, 295. This makes the population density of 0.59 person per hectare or 59 persons per square kilometer.


Within the municipality, there is a wide range of differenced in the barangay population density. Out of the 16 Barangays 2 which are urbanized namely Poblacion has the largest population density with 52.87% people per hectare and followed by Caluttit with 36.70 persons per hectare. The lowest population density is from barangay Bayyo with 0.07 people per hectar.



The municipality has a total of 4,879 households as per 2007 CBMS survey that are occupied. The average number of person per household is 4.


Table 3.5 Total Population, Number of Household Occupied and

                    Average Household Size

                    Bontoc, Mountain province

Barangay Total


Number of Households Average HH


503 125 4
870 197 4
364 86 4
  1. BAYYO
394 119 3
3980 865 5
2022 384 5
  1. CANEO
571 111 5
  1. DALIC
901 187 5
710 195 4
1500 379 4
1039 249 4
578 141 4
2935 657 4
2369 547 4
1566 357 4
1179 298 4



The municipality of Bontoc is predominantly rural. Only the 4 central barangays out of the 16 barangays are considered urban, namely Bontoc Ili, Caluttit, Pblacion and Samoki. Based on 2007 CBMS surveys there were 2,453 households or 50% urban household population while the other 2,444 households or 50% arerural dwellers. The number of urban and rural households is almost the same.


In 2000, there were 10,809 or 50.37% urban population while the remaining 10,650 or 49.63% are rural dwellers. In urban areas there was an increase of 1,064 persons or annual increase of 212 persons. On the other hand, there was an increase of 360 persons or an increase of 72 persons annually in the rural areas.






During the period of 2000-20005, the urban population grew at the rate of 1.80% annually. The rural area on the other hand grew at the rate of 0.66%. The tempo f urbanization is 1.14.this means that urban population is growing much faster than in the rural.


Table 3.6 Urban-Rural Population and Growth Rate

                    Bontoc, Mountain Province

Population 2000 2005 Growth Rate
Urban 10809 11825 1.80%
Rural 10650 11010 0.66%



In Bontoc, males outnumbered the females. The sex ration for the year 2005 and 2007 is consistent of 1.01. In 2007 CBMS survey, male plurality occurs in ages 22-59 with total of 4,669 males and 4,165 females. From 60 years old and above, there are 1,289 females and 864 males. Females outnumbered males.



Dependent age groups are those with ages 15 years and below and ages 60 years and above. In year 2005, Bontoc has a total of 7,520 age’s 1-15 and 1,755 of ages 65 years old and above. This makes the dependency ratio of 40.62&.



The quality of life of the residents can be measured in terms of their status of well-being in relation to certain acceptable or desired standard, as well as the level as social services that are made available to them. An indicator of well-being includes health, education, social welfare, housing, employment and income, recreation and protective services.



In Bontoc, health care delivery maybe considered as adequate due to the presence of numerous public and private health and facilities and services. There is one district hospital, the Bontoc general Hospital and Municipal Health Office (MHO), manned of 1 doctor, 2 nurses, 1 medical technologist, 15 midwives, and 2 sanitary inspectors, 1 dental aid and 138 BHW.


In addition to the 2 public health services are 2 medical clinics, 4 dental clinics and 2 optical clinics. These clinic all located in barangay Pobacion. All these clinics serve not only Bontoc but the neighboring municipalities.

  1. Health and personnel and Facilities, Public and Private

Bontoc General Hospital which has 43 rooms with 100 bed capacity is manned by 17 doctors, 38 nurses, 17 midwives, 19 nursing aids, 2 medical technologist, 3 sanitary inspectors, 10 utility personnel’s and others. The Municipal Heath Office is manned by 1 doctor, 2 nurses, 1 medical technologist, 15 midwives, 2 sanitary inspectors, 1 dental aid and 138 BHW.


  1. Nutritional Status

The nutritional status of children from 0-83 months old as assessed through operation timbang done by our barangay health workers (BHWs) shows from the target of 17.5% of the actual total population, only 78% or 3,010 children were weighed. One of the problems of weighing posts established in different areas in the barangays still exists but the weighing scales are not functional due to wear and tear.


In the year 2008, there are 1047 or 3.46% low weight children and 88 or 85% moderate weight that were able to regain normal weight.


Compared to 6 children who were severely underweight in 2007, there were no cases of severely underweight children identified this year and only 3 or .09 were found to be overweight. Children 0-72 months are being weighed two times a year but the identified underweight are weighed quarterly.


Executive Breast feeding is still fully practiced in the peripheral barangays but not in the central barangays where most nursing mothers are working mothers, at present Lang-ay or wet nursing is still being practiced among neighbors, relatives or friends.


  1. Other Health Statistical Data


  1. Total number of birth

The total number of child birth for the year 2008 is 484 with 253 males and 231 females.

  1. Total number of deaths

In 2008, Bontoc registered 162 deaths. 94 or 58% are male and 68 or 42% of the total deaths are females. Throughout the years, our situation shows that many more males are dying than females. This is understood when we look at the specific causes.


  1. Total number of infant deaths (under 11 months old)

There are 9 infant deaths recorded in 2008. There is an increase from last year’s 6/1000 live births. 2 infants were due to neonatal sepsis, and others were due to respiratory disease syndrome, neonatal asphyxia, acute gastroenteritis and meconium aspiration.


  1. Total number of maternal deaths

There are no maternal deaths recorded in 2008.


  1. Death rate

Bontoc recorded a Crude death rate is 6.9/1000 population of deaths in 2008


  1. Birth rate

Bontoc recorded a Crude rate is 20.7/1000 population in 2008.


  1. Family planning services

The ligtas buntis campaign of the Department of health which aims to address the needs of men, women and couples to plan their families is still going on. Health workers give proper information on the 4 pillar of Family Planning to target groups. The target groups are couples, men and women of reproductive age, pregnant women, post partum mothers, post abortion women, adolescents, men and women with reproductive tract infection. Family planning methods including its effectiveness and side effects, complications, myths and misconceptions are being advocated. Phil Health benefit package on FP and maternal care and location of services were also provided. Master listing of target groups was done by the rural health midwives. Advocacy in the 16 barangays of Bontoc were done either in groups or individuals and these were recorded in forms provided.


The contraceptive prevalence rate for 2008 is 22.2 compared from last year’s accomplishment of 19.32. There were 505 new acceptors on the different methods, 752 clients are recorded as continuing users while 404 clients dropped out due to various reasons.


Social Welfare

  1. Social welfare Programs and services available

Social Welfare programs and services in Bontoc are being provided by 2 social officers, 1 social welfare aid and 23 daycare workers. The Social welfare and Development office has Programs and services in livelihood for families and groups. It has also programs and services to community, children and youth, married couples, women, disabled, distressed and others who in difficult circumstances or in crisis situation. Each program has specific services that respond to the clientele’s problem/needs. Other programs are continuing advocacy on GAD, GST, RA 9262 and RS 9208, and Training on critical stress debriefing among the care givers, KALIPI and volunteers and financial Material assistance of VAWC.



  1. Number and types of clientele

In 2008, Bontoc Municipal Social Welfare and Development Office has the clientele namely; 1,820 Child and youth, 154 married couples, 150 women, 1025 senior citizens and 2 disabled persons.


  1. Number of location of daycare center

At present, the 16 barangays of Bontoc have a total of 23 daycare centers with 23 daycare workers. There are some barangays with more than 1 center namely; Alab Oriente, Alab Proper, Bontoc Ili, Dalican, Mainit, and Talubin.


Table 3.11 Number, Location of Daycare Centers and Number of Children serve

Name of Daycare




# of Children served
  1. Alab Oriente DCC
Dongyowan, Alab Oriente 12 13
  1. Dantay DCC
Dantay, Alab Oriente 7 9
  1. Alab Proper DCC
Bengasan, Alab Proper 12 13
  1. Alab Bilig DCC
Bilig, Alab Proper 12 10
  1. Balili DCC
Nagwab, Balili 6 8
  1. Bayyo DCC
Bayyo 7 8
  1. Foyayeng DCC
Foyayeng, Bontoc Ili 14 11
  1. Mag-eo DCC
Mag-eo, Bontoc  Ili 12 21
  1. Chacalan DCC
Chacalan, Bontoc Ili 12 10
  1. Caneo DCC
Caneo 21 20
  1. Caluttit DCC
Lower Caluttit, Caluttit 10 10
  1. Dalican Ili DCC
Dalican 10 12
  1. Kadattay DCC
Kadattay, Dalican 8 4
  1. Gonogon DCC
Legad, Gonogon 14 15
  1. Guina-ang DCC
Guina-ang 22 25
  1. Upper Mainit DCC
Upper Mainit, Mainit 19 10
  1. Lower Mainit DCC
Lengwa, Mainit 9 18
  1. Maligcong DCC
Fabrey, Mainit 15 12
  1. Poblacion DCC
Loc-ong, Poblacion 27 28
  1. Samoki DCC
Sadlan, Samoki 20 25
  1. Bana-ay DCC
Ban-ay, Talubin 13 14
  1. Doddo DCC
Doddo, Talubin 11 13
  1. Tocucan DCC
Chenglis, Tocucan 12 15
  Total 305 324





  1. Educational Attainment and Literacy

In terms of Educational, the 2000 NSO census on population revealed that out of 19, 706 population 5 years old and above, 2,662 or 13.51% have no grade completed. Those in the pre-school totaled 649 or 3.29%. 2,879 14.61% graduated in elementary while 1,062 graduated in high school level. In college level, there were 740 who graduated.


In Bontoc, there are 15, 061 persons age 10 years old that can read and write. This makes the literacy rate of 89.59%.


  1. School-age population and participation Rate, by level (elementary, secondary, tertiary )

Among the school age population, the tertiary registered the highest participation rate of 181.33%. One reason is that there are a lot of students that are coming from other municipalities and provinces. Next is the Elementary with a participation rate of 109.73% and high school registered the lowest participation rate of 102.49%. This means that the enrolment outnumbered the school age population for all levels. One reason for this is that there are some children coming from other municipalities attending school ion Bontoc.


  1. Number and Location of Schools, by level public and private

At present there are 18 public elementary schools and 2 private schools in the elementary level while in the secondary level there are 5 public schools and 1 private school. There are two tertiary schools, the Mountain Province State Polytechnic College (Bontoc Campus) located in Poblacion, Bontoc.’


Table 3.14 Number and Location of School Elementary Level Bontoc, 2008-2009

Name of School Location Category
  1. Alab Elementary School
Long-ay Alab Oriente Public
  1. All Saints Mission Elementary School
Loc-ong, Poblacion Private
  1. Balili Elementary School
Temwagan, Balili Public
  1. Bayyo Elementary School
Bayyo Public
  1. Bilig Primary School
Bilig, Alab Proper Public
  1. Bontoc Central School
Poblacion Public
  1. Bontoc Ili Primary School
Chao-ey, Bontoc Ili Public
  1. Can-eo Elementary School
Caneo Public
  1. Can-eo Chapyosen Multi grade School
Can-eo Public
  1. Dalican Elementary School
Kadattay, Dalican Public
  1. Dantay Primary School
Dantay, Alab Oriente Public
  1. Gonogon Elementary School
Legab, Gonogon Public
  1. Guina-ang Elementary School
Guina-ang Public
  1. Mainit Elementary School
Mainit Public
  1. Maligcong Elementary School
Fang-orao, Maligcong Public
  1. Samoki Elementary School
Pawek, Samoki Public
  1. Saint Vincent Elementary School
Poblacion Private
  1. Talubin Elementary School
Doddo, Talubin Public
  1. Tocucan Elementary School
Tocucan Public
  1. Ut-utan Elementary School
Lanao, Bontoc Ili Public

Source: DEP-ED


Table 3.15 Number and location of school in the High School level

                     Bontoc, 2008-2009

Name of School Location Category
  1. Albago National High School
Temwagan, Balili Public
  1. Guina-ang National High School
Guina-ang Public
  1. MPGCHS-Main
Eyeb, Poblacion Public
  1. MPGCHS-Tocucan
Chenglis, Tocucan Public
  1. St. Vincent High School
Poblacion Private
  1. Talubin National High School
Talubin Public


  1. Other Educational Statistics
  2. Total Enrolment for the past 3 school years

The total enrolment in school SY 2006-2007, SY 2007-2008 and SY 2008-2009 are 3535, 3675, 3616 respectively in the elementary level. There is a decrease or enrolment in the school year 2008-2009 compared to school SY 2007-2008. While in the secondary level the total enrolment in SY 2006-2007, SY 2007-2008 and SY 2008-2009 are 2127, 2055, and 2184. There is an increase of enrolment in SY 2008-2009 compared to SY 2007-2008. There is more enrolment in the elementary level than in the secondary level. This means that some who graduated grade 6 don’t continue their secondary education.


Table 3.16 Total Number of Enrolment of SY 2006-2007, SY 2007-2008, and SY 2008-2009



Number of Enrollees
SY 2006-2007 SY 2007-2008 SY 2008-2009
  1. Alab Elementary School
115 125 124
  1. All Saints Mission Elementary School
253 261 252
  1. Balili Elementary School
100 104 98
  1. Bayyo Elementary School
34 2 26
  1. Bilig Primary School
62 62 67
  1. Bontoc Central School
1067 1109 1113
  1. Bontoc Ili Primary School
52 53 53
  1. Can-eo Elementary School
88 92 96
  1. Can-eo Chapyosen Multi grade School
0 19 16
  1. Dalican Elementary School
185 203 178
  1. Dantay Primary School
15 16 16
  1. Gonogon Elementary School
87 83 81
  1. Guina-ang Elementary School
304 293 292
  1. Mainit Elementary School
170 159 161
  1. Maligcong Elementary School
95 92 85
  1. Samoki Elementary School
151 144 152
  1. Saint Vincent Elementary School
275 300 287
  1. Talubin Elementary School
280 286 254
  1. Tocucan Elementary School
156 175 180
  1. Ut-utan Elementary School
46 77 85
Total 3,535 3,675 3,616
  1. Albago National High School
225 183 174
  1. Guina-ang National High School
167 177 184
  1. MPGCHS-Main
1230 1199 1460
  1. MPGCHS-Tocucan
78 83 89
  1. St. Vincent High School
318 324 339
  1. Talubin National High School
109 89 138
Total 2,127 2,055 2,184
Mtn. Prov. State Polytechnic College 3,946 4,370 3,843
Xijen College      
  1. Number of Teachers

As of school year 2008-2009, there are 125 elementary teachers in the public school and 13 elementary teachers in the private school. 138 total numbers of teachers in the elementary level. Bontoc Central School (BCS) have the largest number of 38 teachers. In the secondary level, there are 89 teachers in the public schools and 5 in the private schools totaling 94 teachers. MPGCHS (main) have the largest number of 49 teachers.


  1. Number of Classrooms

As of school 2008-2009 there are 133 total classrooms in the elementary while in the secondary there are 58 classrooms. BCS have the largest number with a total of 31 classrooms while High School level, MPGCHS (main) have the largest number with a total of 28 classrooms.


  1. Number of Housing units, by type of building (single, duplex, etc.) and construction materials

The types and structure qualities of housing units are important aspects of housing based on 2007 CBMS survey there is 4,897 total households occupied. There 4,275 households or 87.30% constructed with strong materials of wall and there are 12.70% constructed with light, salvaged/makeshifts materials of wall.


Table 3.19 Construction materials of wall Bontoc, 2007


Type of materials used

Construction materials of wall
Magnitude Proportion
Strong materials(concrete, brick, stone, wood,

Galvanized iron)

4275 87.3
Salvaged/makeshift materials 43 1.29
Mixed but predominantly

Strong materials

519 10.6
Mixed but predominantly

Light materials

34 0.69
Mixed but predominantly

Salvaged materials

2 0.04

Source: 2007 CBMS survey


There are 3,865 households or 78.93% of roofing with strong materials like concrete, wood and galvanized iron. The rest are constructed with makeshift or light materials.



Table 3.20 construction materials of roof. Bontoc 2007

Type of material used Construction materials of roof
Number of


Strong materials(concrete, brick, stone, wood,

Galvanized iron)

3865 78.93
Salvaged/makeshift materials 81 1.63
Mixed but predominantly

Strong materials

897 18.32
Mixed but predominantly

Light materials

46 0.94
Mixed but predominantly

Salvaged materials

5 0.1

Source: 2007 CBMS survey


  1. Tenure on the house and home lot

In 2007, there are 4,897 households that are occupied, 3885 households or 79.33% that were built in their own lots. 409 households or 8.35% rent their units. 201 households or 4.10% that owns a house but rent the lot. 136 households or 2.78% that owns a house rent free lot with consent of owner. 14 households or 0.29% owns the house, rent free lot without consent of the owner. 189 households or 3086% rent free-house and lot with consent of the owner. 28 households or 0.57% rent-free house and lot without consent of the owner and the rest of the households are other tenure or status.


  1.     Sources of drinking water

The drinking water of the municipality is being served by the community water system that managed by the municipal government. The distribution is level I, II, & III. There are also some private water systems that serve the other constituents. There are 3,918 households or 79.53% get water from the community water system. The other get their water source like deep well, artesian well, and springs. Some households get their drinking water at the filling shop.


Table 3.22 Household water sources, number of HHs and percentage.

                      Bontoc 2007.

Household Water sources Number of


Community water system 3,918 79.53
Deep well-own 12 0.25
Deep well-shared 17 0.35
Artesian well-own 4 0.08
Artesian well-shared 55 1.12
Dug/shallow well-own 3 0.06
Dug/shallow well-shared 7 0.14
River, stream, lake, spring 730 14.91
Bottled water 147 3
Tanker truck/Peddler 4 0.08
Total 4,897 100

Source: 2007 CBMS survey


  1. Types of fuel used for lighting and cooking

For lighting purposes the 2000 NSO census reported that 2,819 or 55.99% households used Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG), 887 or 17.62% households used wood, 348 or 6.91% used kerosene gas, 309 or 14% households used electricity and 661 or 313.13% use others.


  1.     Type of garbage disposal

The disposal of garbage 1,821 or 36.17% households are served by garbage truck bringing it to the dump site,

Types of Garbage Disposal # of households Percentage
  1. Pick-up by garbage truck
1,821 36.17
  1. Dumping in individual pit
952 18.91
  1. Burning
1,016 20.18
  1. Composting
273 5.42
  1. Burying
44 0.87
  1. Feeding to animals
929 18.5
Total 5,035 100.00

Source: 2000 NSO census


Employment and Income

In 2007 CBMS survey, the employment rate is 88.5% so there is 11.5% of the labor force that is unemployed. Topping the employment is the Agriculture sector with 40.94%. Second is the commerce and trade with 40.90% and the third is the government and private employment with 18.60%.


Protective Services

  1. Total number of police personnel

The maintenance of peace and order in Bontoc is being carried out by the Philippine National Police (PNP) that is composed of 32 personnel and the assisted by the members of the BRIGADA in the central barangay.

  1. Police population ratio

        As of 2008, police population ratio is 1:728 which means that there is 1 police for every 728 persons. This is better than the standard ratio 1:1000. The area of duty is concentrated in the urban areas which are the 4 central barangays however there is one outpost in mount poli, Bayyo as an additional area of responsibility.


  1. Types an volume of crime

In 2008 there are total index crimes of 86 reported. Out these 65 crimes and 21 were unsolved. There total non-index crimes of 66 reported. Out of these 61 were solved and 4 were unsolved.

Homicide 1
Robbery 24
Theft 19
Physical Injury 42
Damage to Property 22
Malicious Mischief 8
Trespass to dwelling 4
Alarm and Scandal 4
Illegal Logging 2
Illegal Gambling 1
Slander 1
Threat 3
Arson 3
Violation of RA 9165 2
Estafa 2
Direct Assault 2
Violation of PD 533 1
Unjust Vexation 1
Direct Bribery 1
Violation of RA 7610 1
Encroachment 1
Use of fictitious name 3
Violation of Mun. Ordinance no. 84 S 9 2005 1
Concealing deadly weapon 1
Violation of municipal ordinance no. S of 1994 1


               D. Fire Fighting Personnel and Facilities

There are total of 9 fighting personnel 1 senior fire inspector, 2 SFO3.





The Primary Sector

  1. Agricultural crops

-Agricultural Croplands

-Crop production

  1. Livestock and Poultry
  2. Fisheries
  3. Food and Sufficiency Assessment
  4. Forestry
  5. Agricultural Support Facilities


The Secondary Sector

  1. Manufacturing
  2. Construction
  3. Mining and Quarrying
  4. Electricity, gas and water


The Tertiary Sector

  1. Financial Institution
  2. Wholesale and Retail trade
  3. Transportation and Communication
  4. Personal Services
  5. Community Services








Bontoc has a total of 94.935 linear kilometers of roads. The road network comprises of 60.558 km. of the national road, 31.709 km. of the provincial road and 2.668 km. of municipal road. Concrete roads total 15.160 km, asphalts 10.725 km, gravel 69.050 km, and earth-filled none. The total road network cannot meet the road standard of 1 km. of road per 1 square kilometer since we have 0.24 km. per 1 square kilometer.


Name / Location Classification Length(Km.) Pavement
Concrete Asphalt Gravel Earth
  1. Bontoc-Gonogon
National Road 15 1,806 8.124 5.07  
  1. Bontoc-Mt.Polis
National Road 24 6.94   17.06  
  1. Doddo-Balabag
National Road 8     8  
  1. Bontoc-Gawa
National Road 12 2.700 0.300 9  
  1. Bontoc-Cadre Rd.
National Road 1.170   1.170    
  1. Government Center Road
National Road 0.150   0.150    
  1. P.C. Road
National Road 0.165   0.165    
  1. Eyeb-DPWH
National Road 0.073   0.073    
Total   60.558 11.446 9.982 39.13  
Bontoc-Prov’l  Plaza Road Provincial Road 0.156   0.156    
Plaza-Caluttit Road Provincial Road 0.300   0.300    
Caluttit-Hospital Road Provincial Road 0.203 0.203      
Bontoc-Maligcong Road Provincial Road 5.65 0.450   5.20  
Pattig-Minit Provincial Road 14.20 0.490   13.71  
Balili-Paya-eo Provincial Road 5 0.300   4.7  
Dantay-Peg-eo, Sagada Provincial Road 2     2  
Talubin-Caneo Road Provincial Road 4.2     4.2  
Total   31.709 1.443 0.456 29.81  
Ngelangel-Komicho Municipal Road 0.052 0.052      
Pachao-Mosomos Municipal Road 0.114 0.114      
Solang-Felwa Municipal Road 0.056 0.056      
Chakas-Aguana Municipal Road 0.052 0.052      
Walter Clapp-BFP Municipal Road 0.055   0.055    
Post Office-Johnny Awichen Municipal Road 0.710 0.478 0.232    
NFA-PEO Municipal Road 0.110     0.110  
Bilibib-NIA Municipal Road 0.360 0.360      
Eyeb-Municipal Road Municipal Road 0.310 0.310      
Circle-Pancho Municipal Road 0.174 0.174      
Bayle-Changat Municipal Road 0.067 0.067      
Total   1.88 1.271 0.287 0.11  
  National road 60.558 11.446 9.982 39.130  
  Provincial Road 31.709 1.443 0.456 29.810  
  Municipal road 2.668 2.271 0.287 0.110  
TOTAL LENGHT 94.935 15.160 10.725 69.050  

Source: DPWH, PEO and MEO, 2008




Local Planning Structure

  1. The LGU Organizational structure
  2. The Local Development Council
  3. The Local Planning and Development Office



  1. Status of Financial Health
  2. Revenue by source
  3. Extent of Fiscal Autonomy
  4. Actual Expenditure by General Account



Inventory of resolutions passed/ordinances enacted, by sector, by year.


Source:  Provincial Planning and Development Office, Mountain Province

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